Human Health

Human Health Blood engorged mosquito. icipe is developing new tools for integrated malaria control.

Integrated Vector Management  “Adaptive Management”

Integrated Vector Management “Adaptive Management” A diagram showing integrated vector management “Adaptive management”.

Mosquito Breeding Areas

Mosquito Breeding Areas Main mosquito breeding areas in Malindi— swamps and ponds.

Mosquito Control Activities

Mosquito Control Activities Larviciding of mosquito breeding areas.

Mosquito Control Activities

Mosquito Control Activities Personal protection against mosquitoes—Insecticide treated bed nets (ITNS).

Home Research 4-H Paradigm Human Health

Human Health

Print PDF

Introduction

icipe's human health research mainly focuses on anopheline mosquitoes, which transmit the malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Malaria is the tropics' most serious infectious disease, affecting more than 500 million people yearly, 3 million of whom die from the disease. Its effective and sustainable control in most parts of the tropics cannot be realistically accomplished without new tools and approaches for fighting both the parasites and the mosquito vectors. Vector control and treatment methods previously effective in controlling malaria are now largely ineffective due to the growing prevalence of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes and drug-resistant parasites. Resistance to anti-malarials is emerging and spreading faster than new drugs are being developed and deployed. Thus, there is need for the development of new control methods that can supplement the mosquito-killing measures that currently target mainly the adult insects. The overall goal of icipe's research in human health is to contribute to the reduction of malaria and other vector-borne diseases by developing tools and strategies that control the vectors and break the cycle of transmission and that can be integrated with disease management efforts. The focus is on mosquito ecology, mosquito behaviour and malaria transmission, with emphasis on developing new tools for integrated malaria control that go beyond bednets and traditional insecticide-based approaches. Human Health Division collaborates with public institutions in Kenya such as the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and local universities and non-governmental organisations in carrying out its research activities. Further, Human Health Division also works with other institutions which are outside Kenya. 

Books/Chapters in Books (in Descending Order of the Year Published)

Mukabana W.R., Olanga E.A. and Knols B.G.J. (2010) Host-seeking behaviour of Afrotropical anophelines: Field and semi-field studies, pp. 181–202.  In Ecology and Control of Vector-borne Diseases 2: Olfaction in Vector-host Interactions (Edited by W. Takken and B.G.J. Knols). Wageninegn Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.Manda H., Gouagna L., Githure J., Hassanali A. and Foster W. (2008) Rate of plant sugar digestion at different physiological status of females Anopheles gambiae and effects of plant diets quality on their lifespan and reproduction, pp. 165–172.  In Molecules to Migration: The Pressures of Life. Proceedings of the 4th CPB Meeting in Africa: MARA 2008 (Edited by S. Morris and A. Vosloo). Medimond Publishing Company, Bologna.Van Schayk I.M.C.J., Agwanda R.O., Githure J., Beier J.C. and Knols B.G.J. (2005) El niño causes dramatic outbreak of Paederus dermatitis in East Africa, pp. 240–247.  In Climate Change and Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Low P.S., Schayk I.M.C.J. van, Agwanda R.O., Githure J.I., Beier J.C. and Knols B.G.J. (2003) El Niño causes dramatic outbreak of Paederus dermatitis in East Africa, pp. 356–370.  In Climate Change for Africa: Science, Technology, Policy and Capacity Building. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. 

Peer-reviewed Publications (in Descending Order of the Year Published)        

Cross F.R. and Jackson R.R. (2011) Olfaction-based anthropophily in a mosquito-specialist predator. Biology Letters 7, 510–512.

Fillinger U. and Lindsay S.W. (2011) Larval source management for malaria control in Africa: Myths and reality. Malaria Journal 10, 353.

Imbahale S.S., Mweresa C.K., Takken W. and Mukabana W.R. (2011) Development of environmental tools for anopheline larval control. Parasites & Vectors 4, 130.

Imbahale S.S., Paaijmans K.P., Mukabana W.R., van Lammeren R., Githeko A.K. and Takken W. (2011) A longitudinal study on Anopheles mosquito larval abundance in distinct geographical and environmental settings in western Kenya. Malaria Journal 10, 81.

Mala A.O., Irungu L. W., Shililu J.I., Muturi E.J., Mbogo C.C., Njagi J.K. and Githure J.I. (2011) Dry season ecology of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes at larval habitats in two traditionally semi-arid villages in Baringo, Kenya. Parasites & Vectors 4, 25.

Mala A.O., Irungu L.W., Shililu J.I., Muturi E.J., Mbogo C.C., Njagi J.K., Mukabana W.R. and Githure J.I. (2011) Plasmodium falciparum transmission and aridity: A Kenyan experience from the drylands of Baringo and its implications for Anopheles arabiensis control. Malaria Journal 10, 121.

Mancini E., Baldini F., Tammaro F., Calzetta M., Serrao A., George P., Morlais I., Masiga D., Sharakhov I.V., Rogers D.W., Catteruccia F. and Della Torre A. (2011) Molecular characterization and evolution of a gene family encoding for male-specific reproductive proteins in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. BMC Evolutionary Biology 11, 292.

Mwangangi J. M., Kahindi S. C., Kibe L. W., Nzovu J. G., Luethy P., Githure J. I. and Mbogo C. M. (2011) Wide-scale application of Bti/Bs biolarvicide in different aquatic habitat types in urban and peri-urban Malindi, Kenya. Parasitology Research 108, 1355–1363.

Nelson X.J. and Jackson R.R. (2011) Evidence that olfaction-based affinity for particular plant species is a special characteristic of Evarcha culicivora, a mosquito-specialist jumping spider. Journal of Arachnology 39, 378–383.

Turner S.L., Li N., Guda T., Githure J., Cardé R.T. and Ray A. (2011) Ultra-prolonged activation of CO2-sensing neurons disorients mosquitoes. Nature 474, 87–92.

Verhulst N.O., Mbadi P.A., Bukovinszkine Kiss G., Mukabana W.R., van Loon J.J.A., Takken W. and Smallegange R.C. (2011) Improvement of a synthetic lure for Anopheles gambiae using compounds produced by human skin microbiota. Malaria Journal 10, 28.

Verhulst N.O., Mukabana W.R., Takken W. and Smallegange R.C. (2011) Human skin microbiota and their volatiles as odour baits for the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 139, 170–179.

Worrall E. and Fillinger U. (2011) Large-scale use of mosquito larval source management for malaria control in Africa: A cost analysis. Malaria Journal 10, 338.

Bousema T., Okell L., Shekalaghe S., Griffin J.T., Omar S., Sawa P., Sutherland C., Sauerwein R., Ghani A.C. and Drakeley C. (2010) Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: Molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effects of gametocytocidal drugs. Malaria Journal 9, 136.

Cross F. R. and Jackson R. R. (2010) The attentive spider: Search-image use by a mosquito-eating predator. Ethology 116, 240–247.Cross F.R. and Jackson R. R. (2010) Mosquito-specialist spiders. Current Biology 20, R622–R624.Cross F.R. and Jackson R.R. (2010) Olfactory search-image use by a mosquito-eating predator. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277, 3173–3178.Ferguson H. M., Dornhaus A., Beeche A., Borgemeister C., Gottlieb M., Mulla M.S., Gimnig J.E., Fish D. and Killeen G.F. (2010) Ecology: A prerequisite for malaria elimination and eradication. PLoS Medicine 7(8): e1000303. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000303.Herren H.R. and Mbogo C. (2010) The role of DDT in malaria control. Environmental Health Perspectives 118, A282–283.Midega J.T., Muturi E.J., Baliraine F.N., Mbogo C.M., Githure J., Beier J.C. and Yan G. (2010) Population structure of Anopheles gambiae along the Kenyan coast. Acta Tropica 114, 103–108.Mireji P.O., Keating J., Hassanali A., Impoinvil D.E., Mbogo C.M., Muturi M.N., Nyambaka H., Kenya E.U., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2010) Expression of metallothionein and α-tubulin in heavy metal-tolerant Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 73, 46–50.Mireji P.O., Keating J., Hassanali A., Mbogo C.M., Muturi M.N., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2010) Biological cost of tolerance to heavy metals in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 24, 101–107.Mwangangi J.M., Shililu J., Muturi E.J., Muriu S.M., Jacob B., Kabiru E.W., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Novak R.J. (2010) Anopheles larval abundance and diversity in three rice agro-village complexes Mwea irrigation scheme, central Kenya. Malaria Journal 9, 228.Okumu F., Biswaro L., Mbeleyela E., Killeen G. F., Mukabana W.R. and Moore S. J. (2010) Using nylon strips to dispense mosquito attractants for sampling the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Journal of Medical Entomology 47, 274–282.Okumu F.O., Killeen G.F., Ogoma S., Biswaro L., Smallegange R.C., Mbeyela E., Titus E., Munk C., Ngonyani H., Takken W., Mshinda H., Mukabana W.R. and Moore S.J. (2010) Development and field evaluation of a synthetic mosquito lure that is more attractive than humans. PLoS ONE Volume 5, Issue 1, e8951.Olanga E.A., Okal M.N., Mbadi P.A., Kokwaro E.D. and Mukabana W.R. (2010) Attraction of Anopheles gambiae to odour baits augmented with heat and moisture. Malaria Journal 9, 6.Wang M.-H., Marinotti O., James A.A., Walker E., Githure J. and Yan G. (2010) Genome-wide patterns of gene expression during aging in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. PLoS One 5(10), e13359.Cross F.R. and Jackson R.R. (2009) Cross-modality priming of visual and olfactory selective attention by a spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood. The Journal of Experimental Biology 212, 1869–1875.Howard A.F.V., Adongo E.A., Hassanali A., Omlin F.X., Wanjoya A., Zhou G. and Vulule J. (2009) Laboratory evaluation of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (neem) wood chippings on Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology 46, 107–114.Jacob B. G., Griffith D. A., Muturi E. J., Caamano E. X., Githure J. I. and Novak R. J. (2009) A heteroskedastic error covariance matrix estimator using a first-order conditional autoregressive Markov simulation for deriving asympotical efficient estimates from ecological sampled Anopheles arabiensis aquatic habitat covariates. Malaria Journal 8, 216.Muturi E.J., Kamau L., Jacob B., Muriu S., Mbogo C.M., Shililu J., Githure J. and Novak R.J. (2009) Spatial distribution, blood feeding pattern, and role of Anopheles funestus complex in malaria transmission in central Kenya. Parasitology Research 105, 1041–1046.Muturi E.J., Mwangangi J.M., Jacob B.G., Shililu J.I., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Novak R. J. (2009) Spatiotemporal dynamics of immature culicines (subfamily Culicinae) and their larval habitats in Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. Parasitology Research 104, 851–859.Ng'ang'a P., Jayasinghe G., Kimani V., Shililu J., Kabutha C., Kabuage L., Githure J. and Mutero C. (2009) Bed net use and associated factors in a rice farming community in central Kenya. Malaria Journal 8, 64.Oesterholt M.J., Alifrangis M., Sutherland C.J., Omar S.A., Sawa P., Howitt C., Gouagna L.C., Sauerwein R.W. and Bousema J.T. (2009) Submicroscopic gametocytes and the transmission of antifolate-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in western Kenya. PLoS One 4, e4364.Beier J., Keating J., Githure J., Macdonald M., Impoinvil D. and Novak R. (2008) Integrated vector management for malaria control. Malaria Journal 7: Suppl 1, 4.Briones A., Shililu J., Githure J., Novak R. and Raskin L. (2008) Thorsellia anophelis is the dominant bacterium in a Kenyan population of adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. The ISME Journal: Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology 2, 74–82.Cross F.R., Jackson R.R. and Pollard S.D. (2008) Complex display behaviour of Evarcha culicivora, an East African mosquito-eating jumping spider. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 35, 151–187.Hong C., Githeko A.K., Githure J.I., Mutunga J.M., Zhou G. and Yan G. (2008) Monooxygenase levels and knockdown resistance (kdr) allele frequencies in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis in Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 45, 242–250.Howard A.F.V. and Omlin F.X. (2008) Abandoning small-scale fish farming in western Kenya leads to higher malaria vector abundance. Acta Tropica 105, 67–73.Impoinvil D.E., Keating J., Mbogo C.M., Matthew D.P., Rinku R.C. and Beier J.C. (2008) Abundance of immature Anopheles and culicines (Diptera: Culicidae) in different water body types in the urban environment of Malindi, Kenya. Journal of Vector Ecology 33, 107–116.Impoinvil D.E., Mbogo C.M., Keating J.  and Beier J.C. (2008) The role of unused swimming pools as a habitat for Anopheles immature stages in urban Malindi, Kenya. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 24, 457–459.Jacob B.G., Muturi E.J., Caamano E.X., Gunter J.T., Mpanga E., Ayine R., Okello-Onen J., Pen-Mogi Nyeko J., Shililu J.I., Githure J.I., Regens J.L., Novak R.J. and Kakoma I. (2008) Hydrological modeling of geophysical parameters of arboviral and protozoan disease vectors in internally displaced people camps in Gulu, Uganda. International Journal of Health Geographics 7, 11.Kahindi S., Midega J., Mwangangi J., Kibe L., Nzovu J., Luethy P., Githure J. and Mbogo C.M. (2008) Efficacy of Vectobac DT and Culinex Combi against mosquito larvae in unused swimming pools in Malindi, Kenya. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 24, 538–542. 

Mens P.F., Sawa P., van Amsterdam S.M., Versteeg I., Omar S.A., Schallig H.D.F.H. and Kager P.A. (2008) A randomized trial to monitor the efficacy and effectiveness by QT-NASBA of artemether-lumefantrine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for treatment and transmission control of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in western Kenya. Malaria Journal 7, 237.

Mens P.F., van Amerongen A., Sawa P., Kager P.A. and Schallig H. (2008) Molecular diagnosis of malaria in the field: Development of a novel 1-step nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of all 4 human Plasmodium spp. and its evaluation in Mbita, Kenya. Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease 61, 421–427.

Mireji P.O., Keating J., Hassanali A., Mbogo C.M., Nyambaka H., Kahindi S. and Beier J.C. (2008) Heavy metals in mosquito larval habitats in urban Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya, and their impact. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 70, 147–153.Muriu S.M., Muturi E.J., Shililu J.I., Mbogo C.M., Mwangangi J.M., Jacob B.G., Irungu L.W., Mukabana W.R., Githure J. and Novak R.J. (2008) Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya. Malaria Journal 7, 43.Muturi E.J., Muriu S., Shililu J., Mwangangi J., Jacob B., Mbogo C., Githure J. and Novak R. (2008) Effect of rice cultivation on malaria transmission in central Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78, 270–275. Muturi E.J., Muriu S., Shililu J., Mwangangi J.M., Jacob B.G., Mbogo C., Githure J. and Novak R.J. (2008) Blood-feeding patterns of Culex quinquefasciatus and other culicines and implications for disease transmission in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya. Parasitology Research 102, 1329–1335. Muturi E.J., Mwangangi J., Shililu J., Jacob B., Mbogo C., Githure J. and Novak R. (2008) Environmental factors associated with the distribution of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in a rice agroecosystem in Mwea, Kenya. Journal of Vector Ecology 33, 56–63.Muturi E.J., Shililu J.I., Jacob B.G., Mwangangi J.M., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Novak R.J. (2008) Diversity of riceland mosquitoes and factors affecting their occurrence and distribution in Mwea, Kenya. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 24, 349–358.Mwangangi J.M., Muturi E.J., Shililu J.I., Jacob B., Kabiru E.W., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Novak R.J. (2008) Distribution of mosquito larvae within the paddy and its implication in larvicidal application in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, Central Kenya. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 24, 36–41.Mwangangi J.M., Muturi E.J., Shililu J., Muriu S.M., Jacob B., Kabiru E.W., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Novak R. (2008) Contribution of different aquatic habitats to adult Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) production in a rice agroecosystem in Mwea, Kenya. Journal of Vector Ecology 33, 129–138.Howard A.F.V. and Omlin F.X. (2007) Malaria mosquito control using edible fish in western Kenya: Preliminary findings of a controlled study. BMC Public Health 7, 199.Impoinvil D.E., Ahmad S., Troyo A., Keating J., Githeko A.K., Mbogo C.M., Kibe L., Githure J.I., Gad A.M., Hassan A.N., Orshan L., Warburg A., Calderón-Arguedas O., Sánchez-Loría V.M., Velit-Suarez R., Chadee D.D., Novak R.J. and Beier J.C. (2007) Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas. Health Policy 83, 196–212.Impoinvil D.E., Cardenas G.A., Githure J.I., Mbogo C.M. and Beier J.C. (2007) Constant temperature and time period effects on Anopheles gambiae egg hatching. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23, 124–130.Impoinvil D.E., Duncan R., Chowdhury R.R., Keating J., Cardenas G., Ahmad S., Mbogo C., Githure J. and Beier J. (2007) The association between distance to water pipes and water bodies positive for anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the urban community of Malindi, Kenya. Journal of Vector Ecology 32, 319–327.Jacob B.G., Muturi E.J., Halbig P., Mwangangi J.M., Wanjogu R.K., Mpanga E., Funes J.E., Shililu J., Githure J., Regens J.L. and Novak R. (2007) Environmental abundance of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats on land cover change sites in Karima Village, Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76, 73–80.Jacob B.G., Muturi E.J., Mwangangi J.M., Funes J., Caamano E.X., Muriu S.M., Shililu J.I., Githure J.I. and Novak R.J. (2007) Remote and field level quantification of vegetation covariates for malaria mapping in three rice agro-village complexes in Central Kenya. International Journal of Health Geographics 6, 21.Knols B.G.J., Bossin H.C., Mukabana W.R. and Robinson A.S. (2007) Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: Managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 77, 232–242.Manda H., Gouagna L.C., Nyandat E., Kabiru E.W., Jackson R.R., Foster W.A., Githure J.I., Beier J.C. and Hassanali A. (2007) Discriminative feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 21, 103–111.Manda H., Gouagna L.C., Woodbridge A.F., Jackson R.R., Beier J.C., Githure J.I. and Hassanali A. (2007) Effect of discriminative plant-sugar feeding on the survival and fecundity of Anopheles gambiae. Malaria Journal 6, 113.Midega J.T., Mbogo C.M., Mwambi H., Wilson M.D., Ojwang G., Mwangangi J.M., Nzovu J.G., Githure J.I., Yan G. and Beier J.C. (2007) Estimating dispersal and survival of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus along the Kenyan coast by using mark–release–recapture methods. Journal of Medical Entomology 44, 923–929.Mukabana W.R., Takken W., Killeen G.F. and Knols B.G.J. (2007) Clinical malaria reduces human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society Meeting 18, 125–129.Muturi E.J., Mwangangi J., Shililu J., Muriu S., Jacob B., Kabiru E., Gu W., Mbogo C., Githure J. and Novak R. (2007) Mosquito species succession and physicochemical factors affecting their abundance in rice fields in Mwea, Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 44, 336–344.Muturi E.J., Mwangangi J.M., Shililu J.I., Muriu S.M., Jacob B.G., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Novak R.J. (2007) Evaluation of four sampling techniques for the surveillance of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and other mosquitoes in African rice agro-ecosystems. Journal of Medical Entomology 44, 503–508.Muturi E.J., Shililu J., Gu W., Jacob B., Githure J. and Novak R. (2007) Larval habitat dynamics and diversity of Culex mosquitoes in rice agro-ecosystem in Mwea, Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76, 95–102.Mwangangi D., Mbogo C.M., Muturi E.J., Kabiru E.W., Githure J.I., Novak R.J. and Beier J.C. (2007) Influence of biological and physicochemical characteristics of larval habitats on the body size of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) along the Kenyan Coast. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 44, 122–127.Mwangangi J.M., Mbogo C.M., Muturi E.J., Nzovu J.G., Githure J.I., Yan G., Minakawa N., Novak R. and Beier J.C. (2007) Spatial distribution and habitat characterisation of Anopheles larvae along the Kenyan coast. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 44, 44–51.Mwangangi J.M., Muturi E.J., Shililu J.I., Muriu S., Jacob B., Kabiru E.W., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Novak R.J. (2007) Environmental covariates of Anopheles arabiensis in a rice agroecosystem in Mwea, Central Kenya. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 4, 371–377.Ohaga S.O., Ndiege I.O., Kubasu S.S., Beier J.C. and Mbogo C.M. (2007) Larvicidal activity of Piper guineense and Spilanthes mauritiana crude-powder against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Kilifi District, Kenya. Journal of Biological Sciences 7, 1215–1220.Ohaga S.O., Ndiege I.O., Kubasu S.S., Beier J.C. and Mbogo C.M. (2007) Susceptibility of non-target aquatic micro-invertebrates and vertebrates to Piper guineense (Piperaceae) and Spilanthes mauritiana (Asteraceae) powder in Kilifi District, Kenya. International Journal of Zoological Research 3, 86–93.Okech B.A., Beier J.C., Gouagna L.C., Yan G. and Githure J.I. (2007) Larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) influence vector competence to Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Malaria Journal 6, 50.Omlin F.X., Carlson J.C., Ogbunugafor C.B. and Hassanali A. (2007) Anopheles gambiae exploits the treehole ecosystem in western Kenya: A new urban malaria risk? American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Supplement 6) 77, 264–269.Opiyo P., Mukabana W.R., Kiche I.O., Mathenge E.M., Killeen G.F. and Fillinger U. (2007) An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya. Malaria Journal 6, 48.Rukunga G. M., Muregi F.W., Tolo F.M., Omar S.A., Mwitari P., Muthaura C.N., Omlin F.X., Lwande W., Hassanali A., Githure J., Iraqi F.W., Mungai G.M., Kraus W. and Kofi-Tsekpo W.M. (2007) The antiplasmodial activity of spermine alkaloids isolated from Albizia gummifera. Fitoterapia 78, 455–459.Shililu J., Mbogo C., Tewolde G., Githure J. and Novak R. (2007) Mosquito larval habitats in semiarid ecosystem in Eritrea: Impact of larval habitat management on Anopheles arabiensis population. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76, 103–110.Bousema T., Schneider P., Gouagna L., Drakeley C., Tostmann A., Houben R., Githure J., Ord R., Sutherland C., Omar S. and Sauerwein R. (2006) Moderate effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum. Journal of Infectious Diseases 193, 1151–1159.Chen H., Githeko A.K., Zhou G., Githure J. and Yan G. (2006) New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission. Malaria Journal 5, 17.Githeko A.K., Ayisi J.M., Odada P.K., Atieli F.K., Ndenga B.A., Githure J.I. and Yan G. (2006) Topography and malaria transmission heterogeneity in western Kenya highlands: Prospects for focal vector control. Malaria Journal 5, 107.Harbison J.E., Mathenge E.M., Misiani G.O., Mukabana W.R. and Day J.F. (2006) A simple method for sampling indoor-resting malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Africa. Journal of Medical Entomology 43, 473–479.Hong C., Githeko A., Zhou G., Githure J. and Yan G. (2006) New records of Anopheles arabiensis breeding on the Mount Kenya highlands indicate indigenous malaria transmission. Malaria Journal 5, 17.Jacob B.G., Muturi E.J., Funes J.E., Shililu J.I., Githure J.I., Kakoma I.I. and Novak R.J. (2006) A grid-based infrastructure for ecological forecasting of rice land Anopheles arabiensis aquatic larval habitats. Malaria Journal 5, 91.Jacob B.G., Shililu J.I., Muturi E.J., Mwangangi J.M., Muriu S.M., Funes J.E., Githure J., Regens J.L. and Novak R.J. (2006) Spatially targeting Culex quinquefasciatus aquatic habitats on modified land cover for implementing an Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program in three villages within the Mwea Rice Scheme, Kenya. International Journal of Health Geographics 5, 18.Kibe L.W., Mbogo C.M., Keating J., Molyneux S., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2006) Community based vector control in Malindi, Kenya. African Health Sciences 6, 240–247.Menge D.M., Zhong D., Guda T., Gouagna L., Githure J., Beier J. and Yan G. (2006) Quantitative trait loci controlling refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum in natural Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from a malaria-endemic region in western Kenya. Genetics 173, 235–241.Midega J.T., Nzovu J., Kahindi S., Sang R.C. and Mbogo C. (2006) Application of the pupal/demographic survey methodology to identify the key container habitats of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Malindi district, Kenya. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 100 Suppl 1, S61–S72.Mireji P.O., Keating J., Kenya E., Mbogo C.M., Nyambaka H., Osir E., Githure J. and Beier J.C. (2006) Differential induction of proteins in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in response to heavy metal selection. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 26, 214–226.Muturi E.J., Shililu J.I., Jacob B., Gu W., Githure J. and Novak R.J. (2006) Mosquito species diversity and abundance in relation to land use in a riceland agroecosystem in Mwea, Kenya. Journal of Vector Ecology 31, 129–137.Mwangangi J.M., Muturi E.J., Shililu J., Muriu S.M., Jacob B., Kabiru E.W., Mbogo C.M., Githure J. and Novak R. (2006) Survival of immature Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera:  Culicidae) in aquatic habitats in Mwea rice irrigation scheme, central Kenya. Malaria Journal 5, 114.Mwangangi J.M., Shililu J., Muturi E.J., Gu W., Mbogo C.M., Kabiru E.W., Jacob B., Githure J.I. and Novak R.J. (2006) Dynamics of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis and other mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to rice cropping in a rice agro-ecosystem in Kenya. Journal of Vector Ecology 31, 245–251.Ndenga B., Githeko A., Omukunda E., Munyekenye G., Atieli H., Wamai P., Mbogo C., Minakawa N., Zhou G. and Yan G. (2006) Population dynamics of malaria vectors in western Kenya highlands. Journal of Medical Entomology 43, 200–206.Nelson X.J. and Jackson R.R. (2006) A predator from East Africa that chooses malaria vectors as preferred prey. PLoS One 1, e132 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.000013.Njiru B.N., Mukabana W.R., Takken W. and Knols B.G.J. (2006) Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya. Malaria Journal 5, 39.Pfaehler O., Oulo D.O., Gouagna L.C., Githure J. and Guerin P.M. (2006) Influence of soil quality in the larval habitat on development of Anopheles gambiae Giles. Journal of Vector Ecology 31, 400–405.Schneider P., Bousema T., Omar S., Gouagna L., Sawa P., Schallig H. and Sauerwein R. (2006) (Sub)microscopic Plasmodium falciparum gametocytaemia in Kenyan children after treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy or in combination with artesunate. International Journal for Parasitology 36, 403–408. Zhong D., Temu E.A., Guda T., Gouagna L., Menge D., Pai A., Githure J., Beier J. and Yan G. (2006) Dynamics of gene introgression in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Genetics 172, 2359–2365.Ferguson H.M., Gouagna L.C., Obare P., Read A.F., Babiker H., Githure J. and Beier J.C. (2005) The presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in human blood increases the gravidity of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73, 312–320.Jackson R.R., Nelson X.J. and Sune G.O. (2005) A spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing female mosquitoes as prey. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS) 102, 15155–15160.Jacob B.G., Arheart K.L., Griffith D.A., Mbogo C.M., Githeko A.K., Regens J.L., Githure J.I., Novak R. and Beier J.C. (2005) Evaluation of environmental data for identification of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) aquatic larval habitats in Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 42, 751–755.Jacob B.G., Regens J.L., Mbogo C., Githeko A.K., Swalm C.M., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2005) Capabilities of multispectral thermal data for identification of Anopheles gambiae mosquito larval habitats in African urban environments. International Journal of Remote Sensing 26, 523–534.Keating J., Macintyre K., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2005) Self-reported malaria and mosquito avoidance in relation to household risk factors in a Kenyan coastal city. Journal of Biosocial Science 37, 761–771.Keating J., Mbogo C.M., Mwangangi J., Nzovu J.G., Gu W., Regens J.L., Yan G., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2005) Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus mosquito distributions at 30 villages along the Kenyan coast. Journal of Medical Entomology 42, 241–246.Lacroix R., Mukabana W.R., Gouagna L.C. and Koella J.C. (2005) Malaria infection increases attractiveness of humans to mosquitoes. PLoS Biology 3, e298.Manda H., Gouagna L.C., Kabiru E.W., Hassanali A., Yan G., Beier J.C. and Githure J. (2005) Plasmodium falciparum development in the midgut of Anopheles gambiae s.s. feeding on some predominant plants in western Kenya. Acta Tropica 95S, 17–18.Mathenge E.M., Misiani G.O., Oulo D.O., Irungu L.W., Ndegwa P.N., Smith T.A., Killeen G.F. and Knols B.G.J. (2005) Comparative performance of the Mbita trap, CDC light trap and the human landing catch in the sampling of Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus and culicine species in a rice irrigation in western Kenya. Malaria Journal 4, 7.Menge D.M., Guda T., Zhong D., Pai A., Zhou G., Beier J.C., Gouagna L. and Yan G. (2005) Fitness consequences of Anopheles gambiae population hybridization. Malaria Journal 4, 44.Nelson X.J., Jackson R.R. and Sune G.O. (2005) Use of Anopheles-specific prey-capture behavior by the small juveniles of Evarcha culicivora, a mosquito-eating jumping spider. The Journal of Arachnology 33, 541–548.Sintasath D., Lynch M., Kleinau E., Bretas G., Shililu J., Brantly E., Graves P.M., Gebremeskel T. and Beier J.C. (2005) Malaria prevalence and associated risk factors in Eritrea. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 72, 682–687.Bousema J.T., Gouagna L.C., Drakeley C.J., Meutstege A.M., Okech B.A., Akim I.N.J., Beier J.C., Githure J.I. and Sauerwein R.W. (2004) Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage in asymptomatic children in western Kenya. Malaria Journal 3, 18–28.Carlson J., Byrd B.D. and Omlin F.X. (2004) Field assessments in western Kenya link malaria vectors to environmentally disturbed habitats during the dry season. BMC Public Health 4, 33–39.Carlson J., Keating J., Mbogo C.M., Kahindi S. and Beier J.C. (2004) Ecological limitations on aquatic mosquito predator colonization in the urban environment. Journal of Vector Ecology 29, 331–339.Chen H., Minakawa N., Beier J.C. and Yan G. (2004) Population genetic structure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes on Lake Victoria islands, west Kenya. Malaria Journal 3, 48.Depinay J.M.O., Mbogo C.M., Killeen G., Knols B., Beier J.C., Carlson J., Dushoff J., Billingsley P., Mwambi H., Githure J., Toure A.M. and McKenzie F.E. (2004) A simulation model of African Anopheles ecology and population dynamics for the analysis of malaria transmission. Malaria Journal 3, 29.Gouagna L.C., Ferguson H.M., Okech B.A., Killeen G.F., Kabiru E.W., Beier J.C., Githure J.I. and Yan G. (2004) Plasmodium falciparum malaria disease manifestations in humans and transmission to Anopheles gambiae: A field study in western Kenya. Parasitology 128, 235–243.Gouagna L.C., Okech B.A., Obare P., Miyare P., Ombonya S., Kabiru E.W., Beier J.C., Yan G., Knols B.G.J., Githure J.I. and Killeen G.F. (2004) Seasonality of Plasmodium falciparum infection and risk factors for gametocyte carriage in patients attending a rural health centre in western Kenya. East African Medical Journal 80, 627–634.Impoinvil D.E., Kongere J.O., Foster W.A., Njiru B.N., Killeen G.F., Githure J.I., Beier J.C., Hassanali A. and Knols B.G.J. (2004) Feeding and survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae on plants growing in Kenya. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 18, 108–115.Keating J., Macintyre K., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2004) Characterization of potential larval habitats for Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to urban land-use in Malindi, Kenya. International Journal of Health Geographics 3, 9–12.Killeen G., Seyoum A. and Knols B.G. (2004) Rationalizing historical successes of malaria control in Africa in terms of mosquito resource availability management. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71, 87–93.Mathenge E.M., Omweri G.O., Irungu L.W., Ndegwa P.N., Walczak E., Smith T.A., Killeen G.F. and Knols B.G. (2004) Comparative field evaluation of the Mbita trap, the Centers for Disease Control light trap, and the human landing catch for sampling of malaria vectors in western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 70, 33–37.Mukabana W.R., Takken W., Killeen G.F. and Knols B.G. (2004) Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Malaria Journal 3, 1.Mutero C.M., Kabutha C., Kimani V., Kabuage L., Gitau G., Ssennyonga J., Githure J., Muthami L., Kaida A., Musyoka L., Kiarie E. and Oganda M. (2004) A transdisciplinary perspective on the links between malaria and agroecosystems in Kenya. Acta Tropica 89, 171–186.Mutero C.M., Ng’ang’a P.N., Wekoyela P., Githure J. and Konradsen F. (2004) Ammonium sulphate fertiliser increases larval populations of Anopheles arabiensis and culicine mosquitoes in rice fields. Acta Tropica 89, 187–192.Mwangangi J.M., Mbogo C.M., Nzovu J.G., Kabiru E.W., Mwambi H., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2004) Relationships between body size of Anopheles mosquitoes and Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates along the Kenya coast. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 20, 390–394.Ndung’u M.W., Torto B., Knols B.G.J. and Hassanali A. (2004) Laboratory evaluation of some East African Meliaceae as sources of larvicidal botanicals for Anopheles gambiae. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 24, 311–318.Okech B.A., Gouagna L.C., Kabiru E.W., Beier J.C., Yan G. and Githure J.I. (2004) Influence of age and previous diet of Anopheles gambiae on the  infectivity of natural Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes from human volunteers. Journal of Insect Science (Online) 4, 33.Okech B.A., Gouagna L.C., Kabiru E.W., Walczak E., Beier J.C., Yan G. and Githure J.I. (2004) Resistance of early midgut stages of natural Plasmodium falciparum parasites to high temperatures in experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). The Journal of Parasitology 90, 764–768.Okech B.A., Gouagna L.C., Knols B.G.J., Kabiru E.W., Killeen G.F., Beier J.C., Yan G. and Githure J.I. (2004) Influence of indoor microclimate and diet on survival of Anopheles gambiae s. s. (Diptera: Culicidae) in village house conditions in western Kenya. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 24, 207–212.Okech B.A., Gouagna L.C., Walczak E., Kabiru E.W., Beier J.C., Yan G. and Githure J.I. (2004) The development of Plasmodium falciparum in experimentally infected Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) under ambient microhabitat temperature in western Kenya. Acta Tropica 92, 99–108.Shililu J.I., Ghebremeskel T., Seulu F., Mengistu S., Fekadu H., Zerom M., Asmelash G.E., Sintasath D., Mbogo C., Githure J.I., Brantly E., Beier J.C. and Novak R.J. (2004) Seasonal abundance, vector behavior, and malaria parasite transmission in Eritrea. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 20, 155–164.Shililu J.I., Grueber W.B., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I., Riddiford L.M. and Beier J.C. (2004) Development and survival of Anopheles gambiae eggs in drying soil: Influence of the rate of drying, egg age, and soil type. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 20, 243–247.Sumba L., Okoth K., Deng A.L., Githure J., Knols B.G.J., Beier J.C. and Hassanali A. (2004) Daily oviposition patterns of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) on different types of aqueous substrates. Journal of Circadian Rhythms 2, 6.Sumba L.A., Guda T.O., Deng A.L., Hassanali A., Beier J.C. and Knols B.G.J. (2004) (Short Communication) Mediation of oviposition site selection in the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) by semiochemicals of microbial origin. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 24, 260–265.Bousema J.T., Gouagna L.C., Meutstege A.M., Okech B.E., Akim I.N.J., Githure J.I., Beier J.C. and Sauerwein R.W. (2003) Treatment failure of pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine and induction of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytaemia in children in western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8, 427–430.Braginets O.P., Minakawa N., Mbogo C.M. and Yan G. (2003) Population genetic structure of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles funestus in Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69, 303–308.Eisele T.P., Keating J., Swalm C., Mbogo C.M., Githeko A.K., Regens J.L., Githure J.I., Andrews L. and Beier J.C. (2003) Linking field-based ecological data with remotely sensed data using a geographic information system in two malaria endemic urban areas of Kenya. Malaria Journal 2, 44.Fillinger U., Knols B.G.J. and Becker N. (2003) Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against afrotropical anophelines in western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8, 37–47. Gouagna L.C., Okech B.A., Kabiru E., Killeen G., Obare P., Ombonya S., Beier J., Knols B., Githure J. and Yan G. (2003) Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in patients attending rural health centers in western Kenya. East African Medical Journal 80, 627–634.Gu W., Killeen G.F., Mbogo C.M., Regens J.L., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2003) An individual-based model of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission on the coast of Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97, 43–50. Gu W., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I., Regens J.L., Killeen G.F., Swalm C.M., Yan G. and Beier J.C. (2003) Low recovery rates stabilize malaria endemicity in areas of low transmission in coastal Kenya. Acta Tropica 86, 71–81.Jacob B.G., Regens J.L., Mbogo C.M., Githeko A.K., Keating J., Swalm C.M., Gunter J.T., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2003) Occurrence and distribution of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats on land cover change sites in urban Kisumu and urban Malindi, Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 40, 777–784.Keating J., Macintyre K., Mbogo C., Githeko A., Regens J.L., Swalm C., Ndenga B., Steinberg L.J., Kibe L., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2003) A geographic sampling strategy for studying relationships between human activity and malaria vectors in urban Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68, 357–365.Macintyre K., Sosler S., Letipila F., Lochian M., Hassig S., Omar S. and Githure J. (2003) A new tool for malaria prevention? Results of a trial of permethrin-impregnated bedsheets (shukas) in an area of unstable transmission. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 157–160.Mbogo C.M., Mwangangi J.M., Nzovu J., Gu W., Yan G., Gunter J.T., Swalm C., Keating J., Regens J.L., Shililu J.I., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2003) Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Anopheles mosquitoes and Plasmodium falciparum transmission along the Kenyan coast. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 68, 734–742.Morales M.E., Wesson D.M., Sutherland I.W., Impoinvil D.E., Mbogo C.M., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2003) Determination of Anopheles gambiae larval DNA in the gut of insectivorous dragonfly (Libellulidae) nymphs by polymerase chain reaction. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19, 163–165.Mwangangi J.M., Mbogo C.M., Nzovu J.G., Githure J.I., Yan G. and Beier J.C. (2003) Blood-meal analysis for anopheline mosquitoes sampled along the Kenyan coast. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19, 371–375.Nyanjom S.R.G., Chen H., Gebre-Michael T., Bekele E., Shililu J., Githure J., Beier J.C. and Yan G. (2003) Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Journal of Heredity 94, 457–463.Okech B.A., Gouagna L.C., Kabiru E.W., Yan G., Beier J.C., Githure J.I., Knols B.G.J. and Killeen G.F. (2003) Influence of sugar availability and indoor microclimate on survival of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) under semi-field conditions in western Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 40, 657–663.Scholte E.-J., Njiru B.N., Smallegange R.C., Takken W. and Knols B.G.J. (2003) Infection of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s. s.) and filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Malaria Journal 2, 29.Seyoum A., Killeen G.F., Kabiru E.W., Knols B.G.J. and Hassanali A. (2003) Field efficacy of thermally expelled or live potted repellent plants against African malaria vectors in western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8, 1005–1011.Shililu J., Ghebremeskel T., Mengistu S., Fekadu H., Zerom M., Mbogo C., Githure J., Gu W., Novak R. and Beier J. (2003) Distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in Eritrea. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69, 295–302.Shililu J., Ghebremeskel T., Mengistu S., Fekadu H., Zerom M., Mbogo C., Githure J., Novak R., Brantly E. and Beier J.C. (2003) High seasonal variation in entomologic inoculation rates in Eritrea, a semi-arid region of unstable malaria in Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69, 607–613.Shililu J.I., Ghebremeskel T., Seulu F., Mengistu S., Fekadu H., Zerom M., Asmelash G.E., Sintasath D., Bretas G., Mbogo C., Githure J., Brantley E., Novak R. and Beier J. (2003) Larval habitat diversity and ecology of anopheline larvae in Eritrea. Journal of Medical Entomology 40, 921–929.Shililu J.I., Ghebremeskel T.M., Brantly E., Githure J.I., Mbogo C.M., Beier J.C., Fusco R. and Novak R.J. (2003) Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus and temephos for managing Anopheles larvae in Eritrea. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19, 251–258.Shililu J.I., Mbogo C.M., Mutero C.M., Gunter J.T., Swalm C., Regens J.L., Keating J., Yan G., Githure J.I. and Beier J.C. (2003) Spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus and malaria transmission in Suba District, western Kenya. Insect Science and Its Application 23, 187–196.Steven R., Hong Chen G., Gebre-Michael N.T., Bekele E., Shililu J., Githure J., Beier J.C. and Yan G. (2003) Population genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Journal of Heredity 94, 457–463.Killeen G.F., Fillinger U. and Knols B.G.J. (2002) Advantages of larval control for African malaria vectors: Low mobility and behavioural responsiveness of immature mosquito stages allow high effective coverage. Malaria Journal 1, 8. Killeen G.F., Fillinger U., Kiche I., Gouagna L.C. and Knols B.G.J. (2002) Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: Lessons for malaria control in Africa? The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2, 618–627.Killeen G.F., Knols B.G.J., Fillinger U., Beier J.C. and Gouagna L.C. (2002) (Commentary) Interdisciplinary malaria vector research and training for Africa. Trends in Parasitology 18, 433–434.Knols B.G.J. and Killeen G.F. (2002) (Book review) Mosquito: A natural history of our most persistent and deadly foe. Trends in Parasitology 18, 92–93.Knols B.G., Njiru B.N., Mathenge E.M., Mukabana W.R., Beier J.C. and Killeen G.F. (2002) MalariaSphere: A greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in western Kenya. Malaria Journal 1, 19.Macintyre K., Keating J., Sosler S., Kibe L., Mbogo C.M., Githeko A.K. and Beier J.C. (2002) Examining the determinants of mosquito-avoidance practices in two Kenyan cities. Malaria Journal 1, 14.Mathenge E.M., Killeen G.F., Oulo D.O., Irungu L.W., Ndegwa P.N. and Knols B.G.J. (2002) Development of an exposure-free bednet trap for sampling Afrotropical malaria vectors Medical and Veterinary Entomology 16, 67–74.Minakawa N., Seda P. and Yan G. (2002) Influence of host and larval distribution on the abundance of African malaria vectors in western Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 67, 32–38.Mukabana W.R., Takken W., Coe R. and Knols B.G.J. (2002) Host-specific cues cause differential attractiveness of Kenyan men to the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. Malaria Journal 1, 17–24.Mukabana W.R., Takken W. and Knols B.G.J. (2002) Analysis of arthropod bloodmeals using molecular genetic markers. Trends in Parasitology 18, 505–509.Mukabana W.R., Takken W., Seda P., Killeen G.F., Hawley W.A. and Knols B.G.J. (2002) Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 92, 233–239.Okanda F.M., Dao A., Njiru B.N., Arija J., Akelo H.A., Toure Y., Odulaja A., Beier J.C., Githure J.I., Yan G., Gouagna L.C., Knols B.G.J. and Killeen G.F. (2002) Behavioural determinants of gene flow in malaria vector populations: Anopheles gambiae males select large females as mates. Malaria Journal 1, 10.Seyoum A., Kabiru E.W., Lwande W., Killeen G.F., Hassanali A. and Knols B.G.J. (2002) Repellency of live potted plants against Anopheles gambiae from human baits in semi-field experimental huts. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 67, 191–195.Seyoum A., Pålsson K., Kung'a S., Kabiru E.W., Lwande W., Killeen G.F., Hassanali A. and Knols B.G.J. (2002) Traditional use of mosquito-repellent plants in western Kenya and their evaluation in semi-field experimental huts against Anopheles gambiae: Ethnobotanical studies and application by thermal expulsion and direct burning. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 96, 225–231.Minakawa N., Githure J.I., Beier J. C. and Yan G. (2001) Anopheline mosquito survival strategies during the dry period in western Kenya. Journal of Medical Entomology 38, 388–392.z

1.

Smallegange, R.C, Wolfgang H Schmied, Karel J van Roey, Niels O Verhulst, Jeroen Spitzen, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Willem Takken, 2010, Sugar-fermenting yeast as an organic source of carbon dioxide to attract the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Malaria Journal, 9:292.

2.

Ogoma SB, Lweitoijera DW, Ngonyani H, Furer B, Russell TL, Mukabana WR, Killeen GF, Moore SJ., 2010, Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases., 4(8):e773.

3.

Mukabana, WR., Olanga EA. and Knols BGJ, 2010, Host-seeking behaviour of Afrotropical anophelines: field and semi-field studies. In: Ecology and control of vector-borne diseases 2: Olfaction in vector-host interactions" (W. Takken and Bart G.J. Knols, eds.). Chapter 8, pp 181-202. Wageningen Academic Publishers.

4.

Imbahale, S.S., U. Fillinger, A. Githeko, W.R. Mukabana, W. Takken, 2010, An exploratory survey of malaria prevalence and people’s knowledge, attitudes and practices of mosquito larval source management for malaria control in western Kenya. Acta Tropica 115: 248–256.

5.

Okumu, F., Biswaro, L., Mbeleyela, E, Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, R., S.J. Moore 2010, Using Nylon Strips to Dispense Mosquito Attractants for Sampling the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Journal of Medical Entomology 47(2): 274 – 282.

6.

Okumu F.O., Killeen G.F., Ogoma .S, Biswaro L., Smallegange R.C., Mbeyela E., Titus E., Munk C., Ngonyani H., Takken W., Mshinda H., Mukabana W.R., Moore S.J., 2010, Development and field evaluation of a synthetic mosquito lure that is more attractive than humans. PLoS One. 5(1):e8951.

7.

Olanga, EA., Okal, M., Mbadi, PA., Kokwaro, ED, and WR Mukabana, 2010, Attraction of Anopheles gambiae to odour baits augmented with heat and moisture, Malaria Journal, 9, 6.

8.

Sikulu M, Govella NJ, Ogoma SB, Mpangile J, Kambi SH, Kannady K, Chaki PC, Mukabana W.R., Killeen GF. 2009, Comparative evaluation of the Ifakara tent trap-B, the standardized resting boxes and the human landing catch for sampling malaria vectors and other mosquitoes in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malaria Journal, 8:197.

9.

Ogoma SB, Kannady K, Sikulu M, Chaki PP, Govella NJ, Mukabana W.R., Killeen GF, 2009, Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malaria Journal, 8:221.

10.

Muriu, S.M, Muturi, E.J., Shililu, J.I., Mbogo, C.M., Mwangangi, J.M., Jacob, B.G., Irungu, L.W., Mukabana, W.R., Githure, J., R.J., Novak, 2008, Host choice and multiple blood feeding behaviour of malaria vectors and other anophelines in Mwea rice scheme, Kenya. Malaria Journal 2008, 7:43.

11

Knols, B.G.J., Bossin, H.C., Mukabana, W.R., A.S. Robinson, 2007, Transgenic mosquitoes and the fight against malaria: managing technology push in a turbulent GMO world. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 77 (Supplement 6), 232-242.

12

Opiyo, P., Mukabana, W.R., Kiche, I.O., Mathenge, E.M., Killeen, G.F., Fillinger, U., 2007, An exploratory study of community factors relevant for participatory malaria control on Rusinga Island, western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 6: 48.

13

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Killeen, G.F. & Knols, B.G.J., 2007, Clinical malaria reduces human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Proceedings of the Netherlands Entomological Society. 18, 125-129.

14

Knols, B.G.J., Hood-Nowotny, R.C., Bossin, H., Franz, G., Robinson, A., Mukabana, W.R., & Kemboi, S.K., 2006, GM sterile mosquitoes: a cautionary note. Nature Biotechnology, 24(9): 1067-1068.

15

Njiru, B.N., Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Knols, B.G.J., 2006, Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 39.

16

Harbison, J.E., Mathenge, E.M., Misiani, G.O, Mukabana, W.R., & Day, J.F. 2006, A simple method for sampling indoor-resting malaria mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Africa. Journal of Medical Entomology, 43(3): 473- 479.

17

Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Kalongolela, M.S., Kannady, K., Lindsay, S.W., Tanner, M., Castro, M.C., Fillinger, U., 2006, Habitat targeting for controlling aquatic stages of malaria vectors in Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 74(4): 517 – 518.

18

Mukabana, W.R., K. Kannady,G.M. Kiama, J. Ijumba,E.M. Mathenge, I. Kiche, G. Nkwengulila, L.E.G. Mboera, D. Mtasiwa,Y. Yamagata, I. van Schayk, B.G.J. Knols, S.W. Lindsay, M. Caldas de Castro, H. Mshinda,M. Tanner, U. Fillinger, & G.F. Killeen. 2006, Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa. Malaria Journal, 5 (1): 9.

19

Lacroix, R., Mukabana, W.R., Gouagna, L.C. & Koella, J.C., 2005, Malaria Infection Increases Attractiveness of Humans to Mosquitoes. PlosBiology, 3 (9), 1590 – 1593 (e298).

20

Mshinda, H., Killeen, G.F., Mukabana, W.R., Mathenge, E.M, Mboera, L.E.G., Knols, B.G.J., 2004, Development of genetically modified mosquitoes in Africa. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 4 (5), 264 -265.

21

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Killeen, G.F. & Knols, B.G.J., 2004, Allomonal effect of breath contributes to differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Malaria Journal, 3, 1.

22

Knols, B.G.J., Njiru, B.N., Mukabana, W.R, Mathenge, E.M. & Killeen, G.F., 2003, Contained semi-field environments for ecological studies on transgenic African malaria vectors: Benefits and constraints. In: Ecological aspects for application of genetically modified mosquitoes (W. Takken & T.W. Scott, eds.). Chapter 8, pp 91 - 106. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Frontis series no. 2.

23

Knols, B.G.J., Njiru, B.N., Mathenge, E.M., Mukabana, W.R., Beier, J.C. & Killeen, G.F., 2002, Malariasphere: A greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in Western Kenya. Malaria Journal, 1, 19.

24

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Coe, R. & Knols, B.G.J. 2002, Host-specific cues cause differential attractiveness of Kenyan men to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Malaria Journal, 1, 17.

25

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W. & Knols, B.G.J., 2002, Analysis of arthropod blood meals using molecular genetic markers. Trends in Parasitology. 18, 505-509.

26

Mukabana, W.R., Takken, W., Seda, P., Killeen, G.F., Hawley, W.A. & Knols, B.G.J., 2002, Extent of digestion affects the success of amplifying human DNA from blood meals of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 92, 233-239.

27

Kamau, L., Mukabana, W.R., Hawley, W.A., Lehmann, T., Irungu, L.W., Orago, A.A. & Collins, F.H., 1999, Analysis of genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae using microsatelite loci. Insect Molecular Biology, 8, 287-297.

 

Departments

Date and Time

Who's Online

We have 16 guests online